There are many things that can corrupt data; it can be corrupted during the transfer to another device or even during writing or editing. To make it more transparent, when a program writes an incorrect data or something interrupts the writing process indeed this can contribute to the file been corrupt because the data will all be messed up.
Apparently, a virus can corrupt file as well. This is done internationally to damage essential system files, by corrupting some few essential files in the operating system. One negative effect of this induced virus is that immediately it affects the system; it prevents the system from not booting correctly.
In the case of hard drive, it has a spinning disk called a "platter" where the 1s and 0s that makes up a file are being stored, sometimes it might occur on the hard drive, the parts of the hard drive will become "locked away" because of what we call " Soft Bad Sector" which is an accidental software error. Soft bad sector prevents access to data within that sector. To resolve this issue, the only thing you need to do is to do a Disk Scan, which will review the problem causing the lock.
Are you aware that overheating can damage the "platter," and it works by creating a hard bad sector where a section of the drive becomes permanently unreadable? Then all the data in that file will be destroyed.
Some desperate individuals have installed good antivirus to that drive, but have in mind that hard drive are a mechanical device that deteriorates over time, as such, what will happen is that the old drive will gradually corrupt it's data as the lifespan dwindles.
Ways To Check Hard Drives Health
To monitor the health of your hard drive, you can do that using Social Tools. These tools check your hard-drive self-monitoring, analysis and reporting technology. Although hard drives monitor their health.
The computer if a problem arises, you can still check it your self to know the health status of your hard drive without waiting for the hard-drive to inform you. With that, you prepare for the worst before it happens.
How To Fix A Corrupted Hard Drive.
You can use the Check Disk Command to scan the hard drive for flaws if you are making use of Window-based machine. You can conduct a disk check by clicking on Win + X. Click on the Windows Powershell (administrator) and enter CHKDSK c: f/r/x. If your window is on the different drive you might need to change the c:
What this command does is to tell the CHKDSK process to scan your system with a few added parameters. The /f informs it to hunts down and fix errors, also the /r informs it to recover data trapped in a bad sector. Lastly, the /x tells it to un-mount the drive so that it can do its work.
Note: the disk check can take a lot of hours if not a full day to complete, so ensure you don't want to use the system for any other thing for the extended periods you carry out this action.
Fixing A Hard Drive Using A macOS
Are you making use of a macOS, you can just perform a similar action by clicking on the "Apple menu button" then "restart." Hold down Command until the Apple logo appears. Then click on the Select Disk Utility, then press Continue. On View, click Show All Devices, click on your drive, tap the First Aid button. At this point, the operating device will then scan your disk and attempt to fix the corruption in it.